5-300 Use of Force
5-301 PURPOSE (10/16/02) (08/17/07)
The purpose of this section is to provide all sworn MPD employees with clear and consistent policies and procedures regarding the use of force while engaged in the discharge of their official duties. (Note: MPD Training Unit Lesson Plans – Use of Force, are used as a reference throughout this section.)
5-301.01 POLICY (10/16/02) (08/17/07)
Based on the Fourth Amendment’s “reasonableness” standard, sworn MPD employees shall only use the amount of force that is objectively reasonable in light of the facts and circumstances known to that employee at the time force is used. The force used shall be consistent with current MPD training.
5-301.02 STATE REQUIREMENTS (10/11/02)
The MPD shall comply with Minn. Stat. §626.8452 to establish and enforce a written policy governing the use of force, including deadly force and state-mandated pre-service and in-service training in the use of force for all sworn MPD employees.(08/17/07)
5-302 USE OF FORCE DEFINITIONS (10/16/02) (10/01/10)
Active Aggression: Behavior initiated by a subject that may or may not be in response to police efforts to bring the person into custody or control. A subject engages in active aggression when presenting behaviors that constitute an assault or the circumstances reasonably indicate that an assault or injury to any person is likely to occur at any moment. (10/01/10) (04/16/12)
Active Resistance: A response to police efforts to bring a person into custody or control for detainment or arrest. A subject engages in active resistance when engaging in physical actions (or verbal behavior reflecting an intention) to make it more difficult for officers to achieve actual physical control. (10/01/10) (04/16/12)
Deadly Force: Minn. Stat. §609.066 states that: “Force which the actor uses with the purpose of causing, or which the actor should reasonably know creates a substantial risk of causing death or great bodily harm. The intentional discharge of a firearm other than a firearm loaded with less-lethal munitions and used by a peace officer within the scope of official duties, in the direction of another person, or at a vehicle in which another person is believed to be, constitutes deadly force.” (10/01/10)
Flight: Is an effort by the subject to avoid arrest or capture by fleeing without the aid of a motor vehicle. (10/01/10)
Great Bodily Harm: Bodily injury which creates a high probability of death, or which causes serious permanent disfigurement, or which causes a permanent or protracted loss or impairment of the function of any bodily member or organ, or other serious bodily harm.
Non-Deadly Force: Force that does not have the reasonable likelihood of causing or creating a substantial risk of death or great bodily harm. This includes, but is not limited to, physically subduing, controlling, capturing, restraining or physically managing any person. It also includes the actual use of any less-lethal and non-lethal weapons. (08/17/07)
Objectively Reasonable Force: The amount and type of force that would be considered rational and logical to an “objective” officer on the scene, supported by facts and circumstances known to an officer at the time force was used. (08/17/07)
Passive Resistance: A response to police efforts to bring a person into custody or control for detainment or arrest. This is behavior initiated by a subject, when the subject does not comply with verbal or physical control efforts, yet the subject does not attempt to defeat an officer’s control efforts. (10/01/10) (04/16/12)
Use of Force: Any intentional police contact involving:(08/17/07) (10/01/10)
- The use of any weapon, substance, vehicle, equipment, tool, device or animal that inflicts pain or produces injury to another; or
- Any physical strike to any part of the body of another;
- Any physical contact with a person that inflicts pain or produces injury to another; or
- Any restraint of the physical movement of another that is applied in a manner or under circumstances likely to produce injury.
5-303 AUTHORIZED USE OF FORCE (10/16/02) (08/17/07)
Minn. Stat. §609.06 subd. 1 states, “When authorized…except as otherwise provided in subdivision 2, reasonable force may be used upon or toward the person of another without the other’s consent when the following circumstances exist or the actor reasonably believes them to exist:
When used by a public officer or one assisting a public officer under the public officer’s direction:
- In effecting a lawful arrest; or
- In the execution of legal process; or
- In enforcing an order of the court; or
- In executing any other duty imposed upon the public officer by law.”
In addition to Minn. Stat. §609.06 sub. 1, MPD policies shall utilize the United States Supreme Court decision in Graham vs Connor as a guideline for reasonable force.
The Graham vs Connor case references that:
“Because the test of reasonableness under the Fourth Amendment is not capable of precise definition or mechanical application, its proper application requires careful attention to the facts and circumstances of each particular case, including:
- The severity of the crime at issue,
- Whether the suspect poses an immediate threat to the safety of the officers or others, and;
- Whether he is actively resisting arrest or attempting to evade arrest by flight.
The "reasonableness" of a particular use of force must be judged from the perspective of the reasonable officer on the scene, rather than with the 20/20 vision of hindsight.
The calculus of reasonableness must embody allowance for the fact that police officers are often forced to make split-second judgments - in circumstances that are tense, uncertain, and rapidly evolving - about the amount of force that is necessary in a particular situation.”
Authorized use of force requires careful attention to the facts and circumstances of each case. Sworn MPD employees shall write a detailed, comprehensive report for each instance in which force was used
5-304 THREATENING THE USE OF FORCE AND DE-ESCALATION (10/16/02) (06/01/12)
As an alternative and/or the precursor to the actual use of force, sworn MPD employees may verbally announce their intent to use force. Sworn employees may display an authorized weapon as a threat of force. The threatened use of force shall only occur in situations that a sworn employee reasonably believes may result in the authorized use of force. This policy shall not be construed to authorize unnecessarily harsh language. (08/17/07)
Sworn employees are encouraged to consider de-escalation/non-force options in situations when time and safety permits. (06/01/12)
5-305 AUTHORIZED USE OF DEADLY FORCE (08/17/07)
Minn. Stat. §609.066 sub. 2 – “The use of deadly force by a peace officer in the line of duty is justified only when necessary:
- To protect the peace officer or another from apparent death or great bodily harm;
- To effect the arrest or capture, or prevent the escape, of a person whom the peace officer knows or has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or attempted to commit a felony involving the use or threatened use of deadly force, or;
- To effect the arrest or capture, or prevent the escape, of a person who the officer knows or has reasonable grounds to believe has committed or attempted to commit a felony if the officer reasonably believes that the person will cause death or great bodily harm if the person’s apprehension is delayed.
In addition to Minn. Stat. §609.066, MPD policies shall utilize the United States Supreme Court decision in Tennessee vs Garner as a guideline for the use of deadly force.
The Tennessee vs Garner case references that:
“Apprehension by the use of deadly force is a seizure subject to the Fourth Amendment’s reasonableness requirement.”
“The use of deadly force to prevent the escape of all felony suspects, whatever the circumstances, is constitutionally unreasonable.”
Sworn MPD employees shall recognize that:
- For the safety of the public, warning shots shall not be fired.
- The use of a firearm, vehicle, less-lethal or non-lethal weapon, or other improvised weapon may constitute the use of deadly force.
- This policy does not prevent a sworn employee from drawing a firearm, or being prepared to use a firearm in threatening situations.
5-306 USE OF FORCE – REPORTING AND POST INCIDENT REQUIREMENTS (08/17/07)
5-308 NOTIFICATION OF FIREARM DISCHARGES (10/16/02) (04/30/15)
- Employee Responsibility
Any employee who discharges a firearm, whether on or off duty, shall make direct contact with their immediate supervisor or the on-duty Watch Commander and the local jurisdiction as soon as possible except: (08/17/07) (04/30/15)
- During legal target shooting;
- While at an established target range;
- While conducting authorized ballistics tests;
- While engaged in legal recreational hunting activities;
- MPD SWAT Chemical Munitions discharges. (Information will be part of the CAPRS reporting of the event.) (08/17/07)
- Supervisor Responsibility
- The advised supervisor is responsible for notifying the Watch Commander, the Commander of the Internal Affairs Unit, and when appropriate, the employee’s Deputy Chiefand the on-duty Homicide investigator. This does not include the discharge of a firearm with the intention of dispatching an animal, unless it results in injury to a person. (04/30/15)
- At any officer-involved shooting incident in which a person is shot, the Critical Incident Policy (P/P Section 7-800) shall be followed. (04/30/15)
- The supervisor shall respond to any scene in which an employee has discharged a firearm. (04/30/15)
- The advised supervisor shall ensure that drug and alcohol testing is conducted in accordance with the conditions and procedures in the MPD Drug & Alcohol Testing Policy (P/P Section 3-1000). (04/30/15)
- Reporting Firearms Discharges to the State (10/16/02) (04/30/15)
Minn. Stat. §626.553 requires the Chief of Police to report to the State Commissioner of Public Safety whenever a peace officer discharges a firearm in the course of duty, other than for training purposes or when killing an animal that is sick, injured or dangerous. Written notification of the incident must be filed within 30 days of the incident. The notification shall include information concerning the reason for and circumstances surrounding discharge of the firearm. The Homicide Unit supervisor shall notify the Internal Affairs Unit supervisor of the firearms discharge. The Internal Affairs Unit supervisor shall be responsible for filing the required form(s) with the State Bureau of Criminal Apprehension.
5-309 WRITTEN REPORT ON DISCHARGE OF FIREARMS (10/16/02)
All employee firearm discharges that require notification, other than Critical Incidents, shall be reported in CAPRS, including a supplement, by the employee involved and the supervisor who was notified. The report shall be titled, “DISWEAP.” The supervisor shall then complete a Supervisor Force Review. (08/17/07)
If the involved employee is unable to make a CAPRS report, the supervisor shall initiate the CAPRS report.
The Watch Commander shall include all case numbers on the Watch Commander log.
5-310 USE OF UNAUTHORIZED WEAPONS (10/16/02) (08/17/07)
Sworn MPD employees shall only carry and use MPD approved weapons for which they are currently trained and authorized to use through the MPD Training Unit. If an exigent circumstance exists that poses an imminent threat to the safety of the employee or the public requiring the immediate use an improvised weapon of opportunity, the employee may use the weapon. (08/17/07)
5-311 USE OF NECK RESTRAINTS AND CHOKE HOLDS (10/16/02) (08/17/07) (10/01/10) (04/16/12)
Choke Hold: Deadly force option. Defined as applying direct pressure on a person’s trachea or airway (front of the neck), blocking or obstructing the airway (04/16/12)
Neck Restraint: Non-deadly force option. Defined as compressing one or both sides of a person’s neck with an arm or leg, without applying direct pressure to the trachea or airway (front of the neck). Only sworn employees who have received training from the MPD Training Unit are authorized to use neck restraints. The MPD authorizes two types of neck restraints: Conscious Neck Restraint and Unconscious Neck Restraint. (04/16/12)
Conscious Neck Restraint: The subject is placed in a neck restraint with intent to control, and not to render the subject unconscious, by only applying light to moderate pressure. (04/16/12)
Unconscious Neck Restraint: The subject is placed in a neck restraint with the intention of rendering the person unconscious by applying adequate pressure. (04/16/12)
- The Conscious Neck Restraint may be used against a subject who is actively resisting. (04/16/12)
- The Unconscious Neck Restraint shall only be applied in the following circumstances: (04/16/12)
- On a subject who is exhibiting active aggression, or;
- For life saving purposes, or;
- On a subject who is exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of the subject; and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective.
- Neck restraints shall not be used against subjects who are passively resisting as defined by policy. (04/16/12)
- After Care Guidelines (04/16/12)
- After a neck restraint or choke hold has been used on a subject, sworn MPD employees shall keep them under close observation until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel.
- An officer who has used a neck restraint or choke hold shall inform individuals accepting custody of the subject, that the technique was used on the subject.
5-312 CIVIL DISTURBANCES (08/17/07)
Civil disturbances are unique situations that often require special planning and tactics to best bring an unlawful situation under effective control. The on-scene incident commander shall evaluate the overall situation and determine if it would be a reasonable force option to use less-lethal or non-lethal weapons to best accomplish that objective.
Unless there is an immediate need to protect oneself or another from apparent physical harm, sworn MPD employees shall refrain from deploying any less-lethal or non-lethal weapons upon any individuals involved in a civil disturbance until it has been authorized by the on-scene incident commander.
The riot baton is a less-lethal weapon that shall only be deployed for carry or use during, or in anticipation to, a civil disturbance.
5-313 USE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS – POLICY (10/16/02) (08/17/07) (10/01/10) (09/04/12)
The MPD approved chemical agent is considered a non-lethal use of force. The use of chemical agents shall be consistent with current MPD training and MPD policies governing the use of force (Policy and Procedure Manual, Sections 5-300 Use of Force).
Chemical agents, regardless of canister size, shall only be used against subjects under the following circumstances: (06/10/13)
· On subjects who are exhibiting Active Aggression, or;
· For life saving purposes, or;
· On subjects who are exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of a subject and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective
., or; (06/10/13)
· During crowd control situations if authorized by a supervisor. (See 5-312 Civil Disturbances) (09/04/12) (06/10/13)
Chemical agents shall not be used against persons who are only displaying Passive Resistance as defined by policy. (09/04/12) (06/10/13)
Sworn MPD employees shall exercise due care to ensure that only intended persons are exposed to the chemical agents.
5-313.01 USE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS – POST EXPOSURE TREATMENT/MEDICAL AID (10/01/10)
Post exposure treatment (Medical Aid) for a person that has been exposed to the chemical agent shall include one or more of the following:
- Removing the affected person from the area of exposure.
- Exposing the affected person to fresh air.
- Rinsing the eyes/skin of the affected person with cool water (if available).
- Render medical aid consistent with training and request EMS response for evaluation at anytime if necessary
Sworn employees shall keep a person exposed to the chemical agent under close observation until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel. An officer who has used a chemical agent shall inform individuals accepting custody that it was used on the person.
Use of chemical agents to prevent the swallowing of narcotics is prohibited.
A CAPRS report shall be completed when chemical agents are used.
5-314 USE OF CONDUCTED ENERGY DEVICES (CED) – DEFINITIONS (08/17/07) (10/01/10)
Drive Stun: When a CED with no cartridge or a spent cartridge is placed in direct contact with the body with no documented effort to attempt three point contact.
Probe Mode: When a CED is used to fire darts at a person for the purpose of incapacitation.
Exigent Circumstances: Circumstances that would cause a reasonable person to believe that immediate action is necessary to prevent physical harm from occurring to anyone.
Red Dotting: Un-holstering and pointing a CED at a person and activating the laser aiming device. In some cases, this may be effective at gaining compliance without having to actually discharge a CED. Also known as “painting” the target.
Arcing: Un-holstering the CED and removing the cartridge and activating the CED for purposes of threatening its use prior to actual deployment. In some cases, this may be effective at gaining compliance without having to actually discharge a CED at a subject.
5-314.01 USE OF CONDUCTED ENERGY DEVICES (CED) – POLICY (10/01/10) (07/16/12)
The MPD approved Conducted Energy Device (CED) (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 3-200 Equipment) is considered a less-lethal weapon. The use of CED’s shall be consistent with current MPD training and MPD policies governing the use of force (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 5-300 Use of Force). (07/16/12)
MPD officers are only authorized to carry CEDs that are issued by the department. Personally owned Tasers, or those issued by another agency, are not authorized to be carried or utilized while an MPD officer is acting in their official MPD capacity. (10/07/13)
The use of CED’s shall only be permitted against subjects under the following circumstances:
1. On subjects who are exhibiting active aggression, or;
2. For life saving purposes, or;
3. On subjects who are exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of a subject and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective.
CED’s shall not be used against subjects who are demonstrating passive resistance as defined by policy. (07/16/12)
The preferred method for use of CED’s is in the probe mode. Use of CED’s in the drive stun mode shall be limited to defensive applications and/or to gain control of a subject who is exhibiting active aggression or exhibiting active resistance if lesser attempts at control have been ineffective.
When using a CED, personnel should use it for one standard cycle (a standard cycle is five seconds) and pause to evaluate the situation to determine if subsequent cycles are necessary. If subsequent cycles are necessary, officers should restrict the number and duration to only the minimum amount necessary to control and/or place the subject in custody under the existing circumstances. Personnel should constantly reassess the need for further activations after each CED cycle and should consider that exposure to multiple applications of the CED for longer than 15 second may increase the risk of serious injury or death.
Note: Officers should be aware that a lack of change in a subject’s behavior often indicates that the electrical circuit has not been completed or is intermittent. When this is the case officers should immediately reload and fire another cartridge rather than administering continued ineffective cycles.
Unless exigent circumstances exist as defined by policy, no more than one officer should intentionally activate a CED against a subject at one time.
Officers shall, unless it is not feasible to do so, give verbal warnings and/or announce their intention to use a CED prior to actual discharge. Use of the CED’s laser pointer (red dotting) or arcing of the CED may be effective at diffusing a situation prior to actual discharge of the CED.
The CED shall be holstered on the sworn MPD employee’s weak (support) side to avoid the accidental drawing or firing of their firearm. (SWAT members in tactical gear are exempt from this holstering requirement.)
Lost, damaged or inoperative CED’s shall be reported to the CED Coordinator immediately upon the discovery of the loss, damage or inoperative condition. (07/16/12)
Officers who use their MPD issued CED device during the scope of off-duty employment within the City shall follow MPD policy and procedure for reporting the use of force and downloading their device. (07/16/12)
If officers carry their MPD issued CED during the scope of off-duty employment outside of the City (e.g. working for another law enforcement agency) that agency shall sign a waiver (Letter of Agreement for Off Duty Employment) which indicates that certification through the Minneapolis Police Department is sufficient for use while working for that agency. (07/16/12)
5-314.02 USE OF CONDUCTED ENERGY DEVICES (CED) – SUBJECT FACTORS (10/01/10)
Officers must consider the possible heightened risk of injury and adverse societal reaction to the use of CED’s upon certain individuals. Officers must be able to articulate a correspondingly heightened justification when using a CED upon:
- Persons with known heart conditions, including pacemakers or those known to be in medical crisis;
- Elderly persons or young children;
- Frail persons or persons with very thin statures (i.e., may have thin chest
- Women known to be pregnant;
Prior to using a CED on a subject in flight the following should be considered:
- The severity of the crime at issue;
- Whether the suspect poses an immediate threat to the safety of the officer or others, and;
- The officer has a reasonable belief that use of the CED would not cause significant harm to the subject fleeing unless use of deadly force would otherwise be permitted.
5-314.03 USE OF CONDUCTED ENERGY DEVICES (CED) – SITUATIONAL FACTORS (10/01/10)
In the following situations, CED’s should not be used unless the use of deadly force would otherwise be permitted:
- On persons in elevated positions, who might be at a risk of a dangerous fall;
- On persons operating vehicles or machinery;
- On persons who are already restrained in handcuffs unless necessary to prevent them causing serious bodily injury to themselves or others and if lesser attempts of control have been ineffective.
- On persons who might be in danger of drowning;
- In environments in which combustible vapors and liquids or other flammable
- substances are present;
- In similar situations involving heightened risk of serious injury or death to the subject.
Officers are required to report all actual use of their CED consistent with the downloading and reporting guidelines outlined below. (07/16/12)
CED Downloading guidelines:
- The CED (and camera if equipped) shall be downloaded, when used in probe mode or drive stun mode, prior to the end of the officer’s shift.
- The CED (and camera if equipped) shall be downloaded for any incident that is recorded that the officer believes might have evidentiary value.
- If a CED was used during a critical incident, the CED will be property inventoried by the Crime Lab for processing video and firing data evidence.
CED Reporting guidelines:
- When a CED is deployed and discharged on a subject, the officer shall report its use in CAPRS (including a Use of Force Report and in the supplement) as well as on the officer’s CED log. Officers shall document de-escalation attempts in the Use of Force Report and in their supplement. (07/16/12)
- When a CED is only threatened by means of displaying, red dotting, and/or arcing in situations which normally would require a CAPRS report, the threatened use shall be reported in CAPRS in the supplement of the report as well as on the officer’s CED log. (07/16/12)
- When a CED is only threatened by means of displaying, red dotting, and/or arcing without actually being deployed on a subject and there is no arrest or CAPRS report otherwise required, the officer may record this threatened use on their CED log and add such comments into the call. (07/16/12)
When a CED is used during the scope of off-duty employment outside of the City (e.g. another law enforcement agency) officers shall obtain a Minneapolis CCN from MECC and complete a CAPRS report titled AOA and refer to their employer’s incident report in the supplement. Officers shall then download the device and store the information under the Minneapolis CCN. (07/16/12)
5-314.05 USE OF CONDUCTED ENERGY DEVICES (CED) – POST EXPOSURE TREATMENT/MEDICAL AID (10/01/10)
Post exposure treatment (Medical Aid) for a person that has been exposed to the electricity from the CED shall include the following:
- Determine if the subject is injured or requires EMS.
- Render medical aid consistent with training and request EMS response for evaluation at anytime if necessary
- Request EMS response for probe removal if probes are located in sensitive areas (face, neck, groin or breast areas).
- Wear protective gloves and remove probes from the person’s non-sensitive body areas.
- Secure the probes (biohazard “sharps”) point down into the expended cartridge and seal with a safety cover.
- When appropriate, visually inspect probe entry sites and/or drive stun locations for signs of injury.
- When appropriate, photograph probe entry sites and/or drive stun locations.
Sworn employees shall routinely monitor the medical condition of a person who has been exposed to the electricity from a CED until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel andinform individuals accepting custody that a CED was used on the person. (10/01/10)
5-315 USE OF IMPACT WEAPONS - POLICY (08/17/07) (10/01/10)
The MPD approved impact weapons (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 3-200 Equipment) are considered less-lethal weapons. The use of impact weapons shall be consistent with current MPD Training and MPD policies governing the use of force (Policy and Procedure Manual, Section 5-300).
Strikes from impact weapons shall only be administered under the following circumstances:
- On subjects who are exhibiting active aggression, or;
- For life saving purposes, or;
- On subjects who are exhibiting active resistance in order to gain control of a subject and if lesser attempts at control have been or would likely be ineffective.
Strikes from impact weapons shall not be administered to persons who are non-compliant as defined by policy.
5-315.01 USE OF IMPACT WEAPONS – TREATMENT/MEDICAL AID (10/01/10)
Treatment (Medical Aid) for a person that has been struck with an impact weapon shall include the following:
- Determine if the person is injured or requires EMS
- When appropriate, visual inspect the areas struck for signs of injury
- Render medical aid consistent with training and request EMS response for evaluation at anytime if necessary
Sworn employees shall routinely monitor the medical condition of a person that has been struck with an impact weapon until they are released to medical or other law enforcement personnel. An officer who has used an impact weapon shall inform individuals accepting custody that it was used on the person. (10/01/10)
- The Maximal Restraint Technique shall only be used in situations where handcuffed subjects are combative and still pose a threat to themselves, officers or others, or could cause significant damage to property if not properly restrained.
- The MRT is accomplished in the following manner:
- Do not tie the feet of the subject directly to their hands behind their back. This is alsoknown as a hogtie.
- A supervisor shall be called to the scene where a subject has been restrained using the MRT to evaluate the manner in which the MRT was applied and to evaluate the method of transport.
Last updated Sep 23, 2015